## Squares

General FreeBASIC programming questions.
Richard
Posts: 3029
Joined: Jan 15, 2007 20:44
Location: Australia
@ Albert.
Teachers employ mechanical analogues to help children understand atomic physics, on closer inspection the analogy will be seen to be false. When mathematical skills are not available, it is only analogy that makes any prediction of atomic behaviour possible. The student can happily model what might happen in a particular situation, but they are on very thin ice as their overconfidence is based on fundamentally false reasoning.

You are imagining that the atomic scale is as mechanical as billiard balls. That is not a safe assumption when there is such a big scale difference. Understanding mechanics does not make it possible to extrapolate mechanical behaviour correctly to that of sub-atomic particles.

Imagine a black box with two input switches and a meter that always shows the sum of the two input switch positions. It is not possible to know how it works on the inside. There are many possible ways to implement the Add function. All you can say is that the output is the mathematical sum of the inputs. It always reduces fundamentally to mathematics.

Likewise, you cannot know how atoms actually interact. You can only experiment, then hypothesis and derive a set of mathematical defined rules that describe the observed system's behaviour. For that reason, Physics engines / simulations must be mathematical. They cannot employ mechanical analogues because mechanics comprises only a subset of the applied mathematics needed to model the quantum world.

Your New Age mechanical analogue models are inconsistent with the mathematically described fundamental nature of my Universe.
Richard
Posts: 3029
Joined: Jan 15, 2007 20:44
Location: Australia
@ kiyotewolf.
Eratosthenes (circa 200BC) is credited with the reliable prime number generating “Sieve of Eratosthenes”. Also, he believed that he had measured the height of the Sun above the flat Earth. Later it was realised that he had actually measured the radius of the Earth.

CERN may have measured something but at this stage it is really only a number. I don't need to believe in dark energy or dark matter. I believe the dark things are an artefact of Physics' misunderstanding of their own fairytale. The darkness is to hide their embarrassment at getting it so wrong.
kiyotewolf
Posts: 1009
Joined: Oct 11, 2008 7:42
Location: ABQ, NM
Contact:
Richard wrote:@ kiyotewolf.
Eratosthenes (circa 200BC) is credited with the reliable prime number generating “Sieve of Eratosthenes”. Also, he believed that he had measured the height of the Sun above the flat Earth. Later it was realised that he had actually measured the radius of the Earth.

CERN may have measured something but at this stage it is really only a number. I don't need to believe in dark energy or dark matter. I believe the dark things are an artefact of Physics' misunderstanding of their own fairytale. The darkness is to hide their embarrassment at getting it so wrong.

I think we could quantum teleport lightning in a bottle and spawn fusion now.

~Kiyote!
kiyotewolf
Posts: 1009
Joined: Oct 11, 2008 7:42
Location: ABQ, NM
Contact:
Scientific Achievement Goes Boink!

~Kiyote!

I'm breaking a few rules of evolution, if anyone's interested, and I'm my own mad scientist.
I'm also going to hook up with locals in Champaign IL, and try to gather the comrades I need to get KikiAI a proper learning routine, so she can be exposed to all my likes and dislikes quickly, even a whole bunch of words at random, so if I(she) hears a word that sounds weird, it will have that affect on her perceptron.

I'm just amazed that the way that her brain works, it's just a bunch of particles, each with 4 bells. Two good bells, and two bad bells.
dodicat
Posts: 6650
Joined: Jan 10, 2006 20:30
Location: Scotland
Albert
As far as interaction between bodies, as in orbits by gravitational attraction, mathematics can only handle two, so there is no sense in using mathematics for three or more, so I hope that will be a bit of good news for you.
For a nice display of objects interacting through attraction/repulsion you must devise a visual fudge, we have already done this in the past with the spheres in 3d.
Maybe I shall repair the spheres fudge, for I only have to correct the impulses by incorporating impacts as I did in the football 2d thing.
However, just now I am working on my rainbow.
Rember that mathematics is poor when real world calculations are required, it is only useful for more or less contrived situations.
Mathematics should be renamed mappamathics, for it is essentially a mapping tool, interchanging one system into another where we apply rules which we ourselves have made, for instance vector algebra to more easily calculate simplistic position and motion.
By the way, I read in the newspaper this morning that the human brain has reached it's peak.
For us to contemplate unterstanding, for instance four dimensions, we will need massive amounts of oxygen to boost the old brainbox, and our lungs are not up to the job.
Richard
Posts: 3029
Joined: Jan 15, 2007 20:44
Location: Australia
dodicat wrote:, as in orbits by gravitational attraction, mathematics can only handle two, so there is no sense in using mathematics for three or more,

Sorry to be the bearer of bad news Albert, but the concept of a barycentre makes possible the accurate computation of gravitational attraction in planetary systems and even in galaxies. The two masses that go in the gravity equation are the body you are interested in, the other is the barycentre of all the other masses involved. The barycentre of the solar system orbits the Sun in a complex but precisely predictable path.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_of_ ... _astronomy

SLALIB (Astrophysics package) wrote:Earth/Sun ephemerides can be generated using the routine sla_EVP, which predicts Earth position and velocity with respect to both the solar-system barycentre and the Sun. Maximum velocity error is 0.42 metres per second; maximum heliocentric position error is 1600 km (about 2”), with barycentric position errors about 4 times worse. (The Sun's position as seen from the Earth can, of course, be obtained simply by reversing the signs of the Cartesian components of the Earth : Sun vector.)
dafhi
Posts: 1357
Joined: Jun 04, 2005 9:51
@albert

I like your premise. I too have fascination with attraction / repulstion, and am inclined to believe that light travels through a type of 'liquid'

As Richard pointed out, typically our most prevalent "map" is analogy.
dodicat
Posts: 6650
Joined: Jan 10, 2006 20:30
Location: Scotland
Albert/Richard

Thank you for the link Richard.
Did you notice, Albert, that the animations given in the link are introduced by the words:
"Images are representative (made by hand), not simulated"
Which was my point really, you don't really have to use Kepler's laws and polar co-ordinate vector models to draw orbits.

The idea of the barycentre is yet another maths mapping of many bodies into one fictitious particle, so it boils down to the original mathematical problem of central force and mutual orbits of TWO bodies.

Is this not really a planetary workaround, as Stonehenge was?

I would regard anything which is not an analytical solution as a workaround, but that's just my opinion.

Hi Dafhi, The Wiki for analogy link opens with the same old analogy solar system ~ atom.
Pity you couldn't apply central forces to atoms, but electrons are too flighty by far, they have been playing "catch me if you can" since Physics was invented.

This is not really an analogy, I would say it is more akin to an allegory.
dodicat
Posts: 6650
Joined: Jan 10, 2006 20:30
Location: Scotland
Got my rainbow done, It'll blend with any background if fbgfx alpha primitives is envoked.
Gave it a test run on my binary adder but I'll more than likely give it a more scenic and serene setting.
I havn't paid much attention to the aspect of the rainbow, and just did it from memory and a quick look at some pictures on the net.

Code: Select all

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(cx-px)*(cx-px)+(cy-py)*(cy-py))Function rainbow(p As bow,part as string="outer") As Uinteger    Dim As Uinteger r,g,b,col    Dim As Double gap=(p.max-p.min)/6    if part="outer" then            If p.z>=p.min-2*gap And p.z<p.min Then        col=point(p.xp,p.yp,im)            p.br=red(col)            p.bg=green(col)            p.bb=blue(col)        r=(255-p.br)*(p.z-p.min+2*gap)/(2*gap)+p.br        g=-p.bg*(p.z-p.min+2*gap)/(2*gap)+p.bg        b=-p.bb*(p.z-p.min+2*gap)/(2*gap)+p.bb        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If    If p.z>=p.min And p.z<p.min+gap Then  'red to orange        r=255                '  r none        g=165*(p.z-p.min)/(gap)'0  0 g 165        b=0                  'b none        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+gap And p.z<p.min+2*gap Then 'orange to yellow        r=255                  'r none        g=90*(p.z-p.min-gap)/gap+165'165  165 g 255        b=0                    'b none        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If    If p.z>=p.min+2*gap And p.z<p.min+3*gap Then 'yellow to green        r=-255*(p.z-p.min-2*gap)/gap+255'255  255 r 0        g=-127*(p.z-p.min-2*gap)/gap+255'255  255 g 128        b=0        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If    If p.z>=p.min+3*gap And p.z<p.min+4*gap Then 'green to blue        r=0                           'r none        g=-128*(p.z-p.min-3*gap)/gap +128'128         '128 g 0        b=255*(p.z-p.min-3*gap)/gap'0                '0 b 255        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+4*gap And p.z<p.min+5*gap Then'blue to indigo        r=75*(p.z-p.min-4*gap)/gap'0                         '0 r 75        g=0                                                  '0 g 0        b=-125*(p.z-p.min-4*gap)/gap+255'255                        '255 b 130        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+5*gap And p.z<p.min+6*gap Then'indigo to violet        r=163*(p.z-p.min-5*gap)/gap+75'75                        ' 75 r 238        g=130*(p.z-p.min-5*gap)/gap'0                         '0 g 130        b=108*(p.z-p.min-5*gap)/gap+130'130                        '130 b 238        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+6*gap And p.z<p.min+8*gap Then        col=point(p.xp,p.yp,im)            p.br=red(col)            p.bg=green(col)            p.bb=blue(col)        r=(p.br-238)*(p.z-p.min-6*gap)/(2*gap)+238        g=(p.bg-130)*(p.z-p.min-6*gap)/(2*gap)+130        b=(p.bb-238)*(p.z-p.min-6*gap)/(2*gap)+238        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        end if  '____________________________________________________          if part="inner" then            If p.z>=p.min-2*gap And p.z<p.min Then        col=point(p.xp,p.yp,im)            p.br=red(col)            p.bg=green(col)            p.bb=blue(col)            r=(238-p.br)*(p.z-p.min+2*gap)/(2*gap)+p.br            g=(130-p.bg)*(p.z-p.min+2*gap)/(2*gap)+p.bg            b=(238-p.bb)*(p.z-p.min+2*gap)/(2*gap)+p.bb'238                Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If    If p.z>=p.min And p.z<p.min+gap Then  'violet to indigo        r=(75-238)*(p.z-p.min)/gap+238                ' 238 r 75        g=-130*(p.z-p.min)/(gap)+130                  '0  130 g 0        b=(130-238)*(p.z-p.min)/gap+238                  '238 b 130        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+gap And p.z<p.min+2*gap Then 'indigo to blue'''        r=(0-75)*(p.z-p.min-gap)/gap+75                       '75 r 0        g=0'90*(p.z-p.min-gap)/gap+165'165  0 g 0        b=  (255-130)*(p.z-p.min-gap)/gap+130                       '130 b 255        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If    If p.z>=p.min+2*gap And p.z<p.min+3*gap Then 'blue to green        r=0                                         '  0 r 0        g=128*(p.z-p.min-2*gap)/gap '                  0 g 128        b=-255*(p.z-p.min-2*gap)/gap+255               '255 b 0        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If    If p.z>=p.min+3*gap And p.z<p.min+4*gap Then 'green to yellow        r=255*(p.z-p.min-3*gap)/gap                    '0 r  255        g=(255-128)*(p.z-p.min-3*gap)/gap +128         '128 g 255        b=0                                            '0 b 0        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+4*gap And p.z<p.min+5*gap Then'yellow to orange        r=255                                              '255 r 255        g=(165-255)* (p.z-p.min-4*gap)/gap  +255            '255 g 165                                  '255 g 165        b=0                                                 '0 b 0        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+5*gap And p.z<p.min+6*gap Then'orange to red        r=255                                                   ' 255 r 255        g=  -165* (p.z-p.min-5*gap)/gap +165                    '165 g 0        b=0                                                     '0 b 0        Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        If p.z>=p.min+6*gap And p.z<p.min+8*gap Then        col=point(p.xp,p.yp,im)            p.br=red(col)            p.bg=green(col)            p.bb=blue(col)            r=(p.br-255)*(p.z-p.min-6*gap)/(2*gap)+255'p.br            g=p.bg*(p.z-p.min-6*gap)/(2*gap)'+p.bg        b=p.bb*(p.z-p.min-6*gap)/(2*gap)'+p.bb                Return Rgba(r,g,b,p.ba)    End If        end ifEnd FunctionType d2    As Single mx,my    Dim As Single mw,angEnd TypeOperator + (v1 As d2,v2 As d2) As d2Return Type<d2>(v1.mx+v2.mx,v1.my+v2.my,v1.mw+v2.mw,v1.ang+v2.ang)End Operator#define rr(f,l) (Rnd*(l-f)+f)Dim Shared As Uinteger array(xres,yres)Dim Shared tails(0 To 8) As d2Sub thickline(x1 As Double,_    y1 As Double,_    x2 As Double,_    y2 As Double,_    thickness As Double,_    colour As Uinteger,_    im As Any Pointer=0)    Dim p As Uinteger=Rgb(255, 255, 254)    If thickness<=2 Then        Line im,(x1,y1)-(x2,y2),colour    Else                       Dim As Double h=Sqr((x2-x1)*(x2-x1)+(y2-y1)*(y2-y1)):If h=0 Then h=1e-6        Dim As Double s= (y1-y2)/h ,c=(x2-x1)/h         For x As Integer=1 To 2            Line im,(x1+s*thickness/2,y1+c*thickness/2)-(x2+s*thickness/2,y2+c*thickness/2),p            Line im,(x1-s*thickness/2,y1-c*thickness/2)-(x2-s*thickness/2,y2-c*thickness/2),p            Line im,(x1+s*thickness/2,y1+c*thickness/2)-(x1-s*thickness/2,y1-c*thickness/2),p            Line im,(x2+s*thickness/2,y2+c*thickness/2)-(x2-s*thickness/2,y2-c*thickness/2),p            Paint im,((x1+x2)/2, (y1+y2)/2), p, p            p=colour        Next x    End IfEnd SubSub drawline(p1 As d2,p2 As d2,col As Uinteger,th As Single=1,im As Any Pointer=0)    If th<=2 Then        Line im,(p1.mx,p1.my)-(p2.mx,p2.my),col    Else        thickline(p1.mx,p1.my,p2.mx,p2.my,th,col,im)    End IfEnd SubSub cloud(x As Integer, y As Integer,length As Integer=100,_alpha As Integer=105, Zoom As Single = 0)    Dim As Integer r=255    Dim As Integer b=255    Dim As Integer g=255    Dim As Double pi=3.14159    If Length<=1 Or _alpha<=1 Then Exit Sub    Dim As Single rnded = -pi+Rnd*1*pi/2    Dim As Single rnded2 = -pi+Rnd*-3*pi    If _alpha<25 Then        For i As Integer = 0 To 255-_alpha Step 100            Line im,(-(Zoom/2)+x-length/2,y)-((Zoom/2)+x+Length/6+length*Cos(-pi/2+rnded*PI/3),y+Length/6+length*Sin(-pi/2+rnded*PI/3)),Rgba(R,G,B,_alpha)            Line im,(-(Zoom/2)+x-length/2,y)-((Zoom/2)+x+Length/6+length*Cos(-pi/2+rnded2*PI/3),y+Length/6+length*Sin(pi/2+rnded2*PI/3)),Rgba(R,G,B,_alpha)        Next    End If    cloud(-(Zoom/2)+x+length*Cos(-pi/2+rnded*PI/3),(Zoom/2)+y+length*Sin(-pi/2+rnded*PI/3),length/1.4,_alpha/1.2,Zoom)    cloud(-(Zoom/2)+x+length*Cos(-pi/2+rnded2*PI/3),(Zoom/2)+y+length*Sin(pi/2+rnded2*PI/3),length/1.4,_alpha/1.2,Zoom)    cloud(-(Zoom/2)+x+length*Cos(pi/3+rnded2*PI/3),(Zoom/2)+y+length*Sin(pi+rnded2*PI/3),length/1.4,_alpha/2,Zoom)End Sub#macro rotate2(pivot,p,a,d)Type<d2>(d*(Cos(a*.0174533)*(p.mx-pivot.mx)-Sin(a*.0174533)*(p.my-pivot.my)) +pivot.mx,_d*(Sin(a*.0174533)*(p.mx-pivot.mx)+Cos(a*.0174533)*(p.my-pivot.my)) +pivot.my)#endmacro#macro turnline(piv,p1,p2,ang,col,th,d)Scope    var rot1=rotate2(piv,p1,ang,d)    var rot2=rotate2(piv,p2,ang,d)    drawline(rot1,rot2,col,th,im)End Scope#endmacro#macro _incircle(cx,cy,radius,x,y)(cx-x)*(cx-x) +(cy-y)*(cy-y)<= radius*radius#endmacroSub scan    Draw String(360,100),"Please wait"    Dim As Integer xres,yres    Screeninfo xres,yres    For x As Integer=.31*xres To .69*xres        For y As Integer=.5*yres To 9*yres            Pset(x,y),Rgb(10,Rnd*255,0)        Next y     Next x    Dim num As String    For z As Integer=0 To 90 Step 12        num=Str(Bin(Int(rr(20,50))))        Draw String(360,400+z),num,Rgb(100,10,0)    Next z     For x As Integer=0 to xres        For y As Integer=0 to yres            array(x,y)=Point(x,y)        Next y    Next xEnd SubSub draw_tails(b As d2)    #macro rotate(pivotx,pivoty,px,py,a,scale)    var Newx=scale*(Cos(a*.0174533)*(px-pivotx)-Sin(a*.0174533)*(py-pivoty))+pivotx    var Newy=scale*(Sin(a*.0174533)*(px-pivotx)+Cos(a*.0174533)*(py-pivoty))+pivoty    #endmacro    #macro incircle(cx,cy,radius,x,y)    (cx-x)*(cx-x) +(cy-y)*(cy-y)<= radius*radius    #endmacro     If b.mw=0 Then b.mw=1    b.mw=Abs(b.mw)    Dim As Single dil    For x As Integer=b.mx-40 To b.mx+40        For y As Integer=b.my-40 To b.my+40            If incircle(b.mx,b.my,40,x,y) Then '40                rotate(b.mx,b.my,x,y,b.ang,dil)                var dist=Sqr((b.mx-newx)*(b.mx-newx)+(b.my-newy)*(b.my-newy))                dil=(b.mw+(.5-b.mw)*dist/(40*b.mw))                If incircle(b.mx,b.my,(4*b.mw),newx,newy) Then'20                    Line(NewX-dil/2,NewY-dil/2)-(NewX+dil/2,NewY+dil/2),array(Abs(x),Abs(y)),BF                End If            End If        Next y    Next xEnd SubSub settails    For z As Integer=0 To 5        tails(z)=Type<d2>(400+15*z,280-15*z,5-1*z,180)    Next z    tails(6).mw=1:tails(7).mw=1:tails(8).mw=1End Sub#macro arraydelete(a,position)Scope    Dim As Integer index=position     If index>=Lbound(a) And index<=Ubound(a) Then        For x As Integer=index To Ubound(a)-1            a(x)=a(x+1)        Next x        Redim Preserve a(Lbound(a) To Ubound(a)-1)        Endif     End Scope    #endmacro        Sub draw_background        For y As Integer=0 To yres            Line im,(0,y)-(xres,y),Rgb((153-28)*y/(.7*yres)+28,00,200)        Next y        cloud(350,50,70,40,5)        cloud(700,100,50,Rnd*30,5)        cloud(150,150,100,50,5)        Dim As Double x,y,k1,k2        k1=.01        k2=30        Dim As Double lasty        For x=0 To xres            y=k2*(Sin(2*x*k1)+Cos(x*k1))+200            Dim As Double gr=100-40*(lasty-y)            Line im,(x,yres)-(x,y),Rgb(0,gr,0)            lasty=y        Next x        Dim As d2 v1,v2        Dim As Uinteger treecol        Dim As Double pivx,pivy,pivz,l,da,dif,k,g0        Dim As d2 piv        Dim shader As Integer =50        Dim As Uinteger r,g,b        For m As Double=0 To 50 Step 10            Randomize m            For n As Double=525-(m+rr(2,20)) To 990+m Step rr(3,9)                Randomize n^2                l=rr(2,11)                k=rr(1,5)                piv.mx=n                piv.my= k2*(Sin(2*n*k1)+Cos(n*k1))+200+k+m                 piv.mw=0                g0=-40*k2*(2*k1*Cos(2*k1*n)-k1*Sin(k1*n))                Line im,(piv.mx,piv.my)-(piv.mx+rr(-2,2),piv.my+8),Rgb(144-g0,35-g0,37)                Dim cc As Double=rr(1,40)                For a As Double=90 To 450 Step 7                    Randomize a                    shader=-rr(2,4)                    r=20+shader+cc                    g=130-g0+shader:If g>40 Then g=g-40                    b=20+shader:If b>20 Then b=b-20                    treecol=Rgb(r,g,b)                    For a2 As Double=0 To l Step .3                        If a>270 Then shader=-shader                        treecol=Rgb(r,g-a2*shader,b)                        v1=Type<d2>(piv.mx-a2,piv.my,piv.mw)                        v2=Type<d2>(piv.mx-l,piv.my,piv.mw)                        turnline(piv,v1,v2,a,treecol,1,1)                    Next a2                Next a            Next n        Next m        For m As Double=0 To 220 Step 10            Randomize m            For n As Double=70-(m+rr(2,50)) To 585+m Step rr(3,9)                Randomize n^2                l=rr(3,13)                k=rr(1,5)                piv.mx=n                piv.my=k2*(Sin(2*n*k1)+Cos(n*k1))+200+k+m                piv.mw=0                g0=-30*k2*(2*k1*Cos(2*k1*n)-k1*Sin(k1*n))                Line im, (piv.mx,piv.my)-(piv.mx+rr(-2,2),piv.my+12),Rgb(144-g0,35-g0,37)                Dim cc As Double=rr(0,15)                For a As Double=135 To 405 Step 5                    Randomize a                    shader=rr(2,4)                    r=20+shader+cc                    g=90-g0+shader                    b=20+shader:If b>20 Then b=b-20                    treecol=Rgb(r,g,b)                    For a2 As Double=0 To l Step .3                        If a>270 Then shader=-shader                        treecol=Rgb(r,g-a2*shader,b)                        v1=Type<d2>(piv.mx+a2,piv.my,piv.mw)                        v2=Type<d2>(piv.mx-l,piv.my,piv.mw)                        turnline(piv,v1,v2,a,treecol,1,1)                         Next a2                Next a            Next n        Next m        '_____________________        Dim As Double cx=400,cy=600For x As Integer=0 To 800    For y As Integer=0 To 600        r1.xp=x:r1.yp=y         'r1.z=y        ' r1.min=00         'r1.max=600         'r1.ba=255        'Pset im,(x,y),rainbow(r1)        r1.z=distance(cx,cy,x,y)        r1.min=400         r1.max=450         r1.ba=55        Pset im,(x,y),rainbow(r1,"outer")        r1.min=300        r1.max=330        r1.ba=100        Pset im,(x,y),rainbow(r1,"inner")           Next yNext x                For x As Integer=0 To xres            For y As Integer=0 To yres                If _incircle(350,500,40,x,y) Or _incircle(450,500,40,x,y) Then                    Pset im,(x,y),Rgb(Rnd*255,Rnd*255,Rnd*25)                End If            Next y        Next x        Draw String im,(420,510),"1001101",Rgb(0,0,0)        Draw String im,(320,510),"1101001",Rgb(0,0,0)        Circle im,(350,500),15,Rgb(250,250,255),,,,f        Circle im,(450,500),15,Rgb(250,250,255),,,,f                Circle im,(350,500),15,Rgb(00,00,55)',,,,f        Circle im,(450,500),15,Rgb(00,00,55)',,,,f                Circle im,(350,500),8,Rgba(0,0,255,150),,,,f        Circle im,(450,500),8,Rgba(0,0,255,150),,,,f                Circle im,(350,500),4,Rgb(0,0,0),,,.3,f        Circle im,(450,500),4,Rgb(0,0,0),,,.3,f    End Sub    Sub draw_balls(b As d2)        Dim  As Uinteger colour(90,90)        #macro rotate(pivotx,pivoty,px,py,a,scale)        var Newx=scale*(Cos(a*.0174533)*(px-pivotx)-Sin(a*.0174533)*(py-pivoty))+pivotx        var Newy=scale*(Sin(a*.0174533)*(px-pivotx)+Cos(a*.0174533)*(py-pivoty))+pivoty        #endmacro        #macro incircle(cx,cy,radius,x,y)        (cx-x)*(cx-x) +(cy-y)*(cy-y)<= radius*radius        #endmacro         If b.mw=0 Then b.mw=1        b.mw=Abs(b.mw)        For x As Integer=b.mx-40 To b.mx+40            For y As Integer=b.my-40 To b.my+40                If incircle(b.mx,b.my,40,x,y) Then                    colour(x-b.mx+40,y-b.my+40)=.999999*Point(x,y)                End If            Next y        Next x                Dim As Single dil        For x As Integer=b.mx-40 To b.mx+40            For y As Integer=b.my-40 To b.my+40                If incircle(b.mx,b.my,40,x,y) Then                     rotate(b.mx,b.my,x,y,b.ang,dil)                    var dist=Sqr((b.mx-newx)*(b.mx-newx)+(b.my-newy)*(b.my-newy))                    dil=(b.mw+(.5-b.mw)*dist/(40*b.mw))                    If incircle(b.mx,b.my,(20*b.mw),newx,newy) Then                        Line(NewX-dil/2,NewY-dil/2)-(NewX+dil/2,NewY+dil/2),colour(x-b.mx+40,y-b.my+40),BF                    End If                End If            Next y        Next x        'circle(b.mx,b.my),20*b.mw    End Sub    Sub framecounter        Static As Single frame,fps        frame=frame+1        Static As Single t1,t2        If frame>=fps Then            t1 = Timer            fps = frame/(t1-t2)            Windowtitle "Frames per second = " & fps            t2=Timer            frame=0        End If    End Sub    Dim As Integer _x,_y,_z,flag    Dim As Single l,dx,dy,sx,sy    #macro add()    flag=1    num=num+1    Redim Preserve ball(num)    #endmacro    #macro tung()    _x=bf.mx    _y=bf.my    _z=rr(2,2.5)    ball(num)=Type<d2>(_x,_y,_z)    dx=_x-xres/2'-_x    dy=_y-(yres/1.9+220)'-_y    sx=xres/2:sy=yres/1.9+220    l=l+.1    For z As Integer=1 To 5        thickline(sx,sy,(xres/2+l*dx),(yres/1.9+220+l*dy),15*l,Rgb(200*l-z/2,0,0))'10*l    Next z    sx=xres/2+l*dx:sy=yres/1.9+220+l*dy    'next l    sx=xres/2:sy=yres/1.9+220    If l>=1 Then        l=0:flag=0        bf.mx=rr(200,500):bf.my=rr(50,100)     End If    #endmacro    Dim Shared num As Integer    num=1        reDim As d2 ball(num)        Dim As Single x0=350,y0=500,x1=450,y1=500    ball(0)=Type<d2>(x0,y0,2,0)    ball(1)=Type<d2>(x1,y1,2,0)    '#macro hold()    '______________________________________________    Type pixel_data        As Integer Xpos,Ypos        As Uinteger colour    End Type        '___THESE VALUES ARE FIXED_____    Redim Shared As pixel_data a(315)    Dim Shared As Integer count    Dim As Double magnification    magnification=  1.5    Dim Shared As Integer _width,_height    _width=  56    _height=  36    '____________________        #macro read_data(col,xp,yp)    Restore col    For z As Integer=1 To Ubound(a)        Read a(z).colour    Next z    Restore xp    For z As Integer=1 To Ubound(a)        Read a(z).xpos    Next z    Restore yp    For z As Integer=1 To Ubound(a)        Read a(z).ypos    Next z    #endmacro        'CREATE IMAGE HERE    Dim Shared As Any Pointer image(3)    image(1)=imagecreate(_width,_height)    image(2)=imagecreate(_width,_height)    image(3)=imagecreate(_width,_height)    Sub drawbitmap_to_image(scale As Single=1,n As Integer)        Dim As Integer max_x=-1e6,min_x=1e6,max_y=-1e6,min_y=1e6        Dim As Single rotx,roty        #macro magnify(pivotx,pivoty,px,py,scale)        rotx=scale*(px-pivotx)+pivotx        roty=scale*(py-pivoty)+pivoty        #endmacro        For z As Integer=1 To Ubound(a)            magnify(0,0,(a(z).xpos),(a(z).ypos),scale)            If max_x<rotx Then max_x=rotx            If min_x>rotx Then min_x=rotx            If max_y<roty Then max_y=roty            If min_y>roty Then min_y=roty        Next z        For z As Integer=1 To Ubound(a)            magnify(0,0,(a(z).xpos),(a(z).ypos),scale)            rotx=rotx-min_x:roty=roty-min_y            Line image(n),(rotx-scale/2,roty-scale/2)-(rotx+scale/2,roty+scale/2),a(z).colour,BF        Next z    End Sub        '________READ AND MAKE AN IMAGE__________    read_data(colour,xpos,ypos)  'colour:,xpos:,ypos: are the DATA restore labels    drawbitmap_to_image(magnification,1) 'magnification has been calculated, 1 is for image(1)    Redim  a(146)    read_data(colour2,xpos2,ypos2)      drawbitmap_to_image(magnification,2)    Redim a(95)    read_data(colour3,xpos3,ypos3)     drawbitmap_to_image(magnification,3)    'BITMAP image is now in image(1,2,3)    #macro tailslug(r,a)    tx=r*Cos(a)    ty=r*Sin(a)    #endmacro    #macro dot(rad,slug)    xdot=xres/2+2*rad*Cos(slug)    ydot=yres/10+rad*Sin(slug)    #endmacro    #macro grass()    For z As Integer=1 To 4000        gl=(.1-.01)*(gr(z).my-.9*yres)/(yres+50-.9*yres)+.01        Line (gr(z).mx,gr(z).my)-(gr(z).mx+gl*(xdot-gr(z).mx),gr(z).my+gl*(ydot-gr(z).my)),Rgb(100,gr(z).mw,0)        If z Mod 100 =0 Then            fr=(6-2)*(gr(z).my-.9*yres)/(yres+50-.9*yres)+2            Circle (gr(z).mx+gl*(xdot-gr(z).mx),gr(z).my+gl*(ydot-gr(z).my)+1.1*fr),fr-2,Rgb(250,250,0),,,,f            Circle (gr(z).mx+gl*(xdot-gr(z).mx),gr(z).my+gl*(ydot-gr(z).my)),fr,Rgb(200,0,rr(50,200)),,,,f        End If    Next z    #endmacro    Dim As String i    Dim As Integer mx,my    Dim As Integer xdot,ydot    scan    settails    Dim Shared As d2 gr(1 To 4000)    For z As Integer=1 To 4000        gr(z).mx=rr(-100,(xres+100))        gr(z).my=rr(.9*yres,(yres+50))        gr(z).mw=rr(50,250)    Next z        draw_background    Dim _count As Single    Dim mm As Integer    Dim n As Integer    Dim As Double tslug,ty,tx,dslug,gl,fr,xdist,ydist,pi2=8*Atn(1)    Dim As Integer bx=1,by=1,imcount,pp    Dim As Single _dx=rr(1,2),_dy=rr(1,2)    Dim As d2 BF,c    bf=Type<d2>(rr(200,500),rr(50,100))    Do        screensync        tslug=tslug+.05:If tslug>pi2 Then tslug=0        dslug=dslug+.01:If dslug>pi2 Then dslug=0        imcount=imcount+1        If imcount>3 Then imcount=0        n=-1        framecounter        _count=_count+1:If _count>1e6 Then _count=0        mm=Int(rr(50,60))        Screenlock        Cls        Put(0,0),im,Pset        dot(200,dslug)        grass()        If _count Mod mm=0 Then :add():End If        For z As Integer=0 To 8            tailslug(z*10,1*tslug+z)            tails(z).mx=xres/2+tx/2            tails(z).my=480-15*z            If z<8 Then                 thickline(tails(z).mx,tails(z).my,tails(z+1).mx,tails(z+1).my,12-z,Rgb(50,30*z,0))            End If            draw_tails(tails(z))        Next z        _dx=rr(1,5)        _dy=rr(1,5)        If _count Mod Int(rr(80,100))=0 Then bx=-bx        If _count Mod Int(rr(90,100))=0 Then by=-by        If bf.mx<0 Then bx=-bx:_dx=5        If bf.mx>xres-56 Then bx=-bx:_dx=5        If bf.my>yres-100 Then: add():end if         If bf.my<0 Then by=-by:_dy=5                bf=Type<d2>(bf.mx+bx*_dx,bf.my+by*_dy)        Select Case imcount        Case 1            Put(bf.mx,bf.my),image(1),trans        Case 2            Put(bf.mx,bf.my),image(2),trans        Case 3            Put(bf.mx,bf.my),image(3),trans        End Select        pp=rr(5,10)        thickline(400,500,400,550+pp,20,Rgb(100,rr(10,15),0))        For z As Integer=1 To 2            Circle(385+10*z,538+pp),9,Rgb(155,155,0),,,7,f        Next z        Circle(400,550+pp),20,Rgb(0,50,0),,,.2,f        Do            n=n+1            If n>1 Then                ball(n).my=ball(n).my+1            End If            If ball(n).my>yres Then                arraydelete(ball,n)                n=n-1            End If            xdist=-10*bf.mx/xres+5            ydist=-10*bf.my/yres+10            x0=350+2*xdist:x1=450+2*xdist            y0=500+2*ydist:y1=500+2*ydist            ball(0)=Type<d2>(x0,y0,2.5,0)            ball(1)=Type<d2>(x1,y1,2.5,0)            draw_balls(ball(n))            If flag=1 Then                tung()            End If        Loop Until n>=Ubound(ball)        num=Ubound(ball)        Screenunlock        Sleep 1,1    Loop Until Inkey=Chr(27)    imagedestroy im    For z As Integer=1 To 3:imagedestroy image(z):Next z `
albert
Posts: 5889
Joined: Sep 28, 2006 2:41
Location: California, USA
@Richard
@Dodicat

Harvard nuclear modeling lab teaches, that protons and neutrons are physical particles and all the atom orbitals are frequencies created by these neucleons..

So what are particles made of??

We have to assume that in the beginning; only space-time existed, and therefore particles are made up of space-time..

(so if space-time of a cubic volume were to be compressed it would appear as a solid mass.)
But how would it attract/repel a like/opposite???

The big-bang theory doesn't get into how the super star that exploded came into being...

And exploding stellar particles, how would they form into a spiral galaxy, unless something was moving inward at the outward velocity and created the whirlpools...
albert
Posts: 5889
Joined: Sep 28, 2006 2:41
Location: California, USA
I've developed the theory that space-time is a sparse physical substance and has elesticity.

That would mean that all particles masses must rotate to keep the space-time wound-up , but perhaps after a mass has reached a point it might be able to retain its mass by its self..

In order for a mass to be spherical it would have to rotate on several axi's , this means perodic polar shifts. (only the earth does polar shifts)

maybe the cores of the planets and moons are doing multi axial rotations and the crust just wobbles from it,because the liquid mantles...
==============================================

How would you make the screen an elastic, sparse substance to draw it in by such a multi-axial rotation????

Would you make it tiny spheres all connected together???
kiyotewolf
Posts: 1009
Joined: Oct 11, 2008 7:42
Location: ABQ, NM
Contact:
There is a magnetic coiled spring, in the Z axes of the universe, connecting the sun and the earth. It's about to unwind and release a whole bunch of energy, and possibly pierce our magnetic shield field, and violently strike the earth with electro-magnetic-electro-motive forces unseen in a whole eon.

I think we need to start dumping lead-acid batteries in Yellow Stone National Park to create an EMF shield, and, to start making mass quantities of dry ice so that we can give people 'personal cloud boxes' they can blow in to release a miniature cloud.

There are a bunch of forces always at work, and I really think that we're deep sea dwellers, and that at the forefront of the expansion of the universe, is not the sea, but air, and then by air, you find land, and then, God's beach house.

~Kiyote!
dafhi
Posts: 1357
Joined: Jun 04, 2005 9:51
u pple are nutty.

@dodicat
cool proggy

(can you believe I've edited this twice)
Richard
Posts: 3029
Joined: Jan 15, 2007 20:44
Location: Australia
dafhi wrote:u pple are nutty.

(can you believe I've edited this twice)
Yes and Yes.
This topic is for squares, square people that is. You have to be nutty to post here, so congratulations dafhi on your coming out and welcome to the squares asylum.
albert
Posts: 5889
Joined: Sep 28, 2006 2:41
Location: California, USA
@Richard

If mass (particles) are comprised of space-time:

Then particle properties (electric charge) must then be one of the two:

1.) property is inherent in the matter, (then size of mass would determine electrical property or charge)

2.) Property is a mechanical operation..(the mass hast to act in some way to have a charge)
===============================================

I keep going around in circles, every time i solve one aspect of matter, it seems two or more impossibilties surface..
(such as the perpetual motion X/Y photon particle machine above..)